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1- Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran
Introduction: Abnormal brain structure and function has been described in individuals with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the alteration of the parietal lobe structure and function in individuals with ADHD.
Methods: In this systematic review, we searched English papers in accordance with the PRISMA approach. Studies were published between January 2010 and May 2021. Our search was conducted in two parts. Our first search was in July 2020, and our final search ended in June 2021.  A literature search identified 20 empirical experiments.
Results: In general, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies described low activity and poor connectivity, structural MRI study has reported less gray matter of this lobe, and an echo study described atrophy, electroencephalographic studies reported less connectivity of the parietal lobes in ADHD. Furthermore, the transcranial direct current stimulation intervention has shown activation of this lobe improves attention and executive functions in children with ADHD, and finally Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation study has shown activation of this lobe improves working memory.
Conclusion: Functional and structural alteration of the parietal cortex has been described in ADHD, which have a causal relationship with cognitive impairments. In sum, all included studies described abnormal structure, function, or connectivity of the parietal lobe or improvement of cognitive functions with stimulation of the parietal lobe.
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2020/08/19 | Accepted: 2022/07/13

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