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1- Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of radiology, Ziaeian hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental disorder characterized by alterations in mood, cognition, neurovegetative functions, and psychomotor activity. Millions of people worldwide suffer from this disease. There is no diagnosis based on laboratory tests for major depression. Even though there are varieties of treatments for MDD, often antidepressants are used to treat patients. There is a wide range of different responses to antidepressant drugs. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a big challenge in the treatment of this disease.
Purpose: This article's goal is to review the current knowledge of MDD in order to show the deficiencies related to this disease in various fields of diagnosis and treatment, which shows the essential need for molecular studies to find new biomarkers related to this disease.
Method: This review uses two search strategies: a literature search using keywords (major depressive disorder, or MDD) and articles on each study topic. Animal experiments, pediatric MDD, and postpartum depression are excluded. For parts requiring more study, specific keywords are used.
Result: Biological approaches can help with a better understanding of the MDD pathogenesis mechanism, which is needed for diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of treatment response.
Conclusion: Despite the fact that there are a variety of treatments and diagnoses for MDD, they are not sufficient, and it appears more investigations and research are needed. Finding a specific and sensitive panel of biomarkers for these aims is more helpful for accelerating the clinical development of new diagnoses and therapeutics for MDD patients.
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Behavioral Neuroscience
Received: 2023/11/13 | Accepted: 2024/01/2

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