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1- Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran, Iran.
2- Research Center for Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Cognitive Modeling, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:  
Introduction: Frontoparietal (FPN) and cingulo-opercular (CON) networks control cognitive functions needed in deductive and inductive reasoning via different functional frameworks. The FPN is a fast intuitive system while the CON is slow and analytical. The default-interventionist model presents a serial view on the interaction between intuitive and analytic cognitive systems. This study aimed to examine the activity pattern of the FPN and CON from the perspective of the default-interventionist model through reasoning.
Method: We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate cingulo-opercular and frontoparietal networks activities in twenty-four healthy university students during Raven and Wason reasoning tasks. Due to the different operation times of the CON and FPN, the reaction time was assessed as a behavioral factor.
Results: During the RAPM test, both the CON and FPN were activated. Also, with the increasing difficulty level of the Raven test, a linear increase in response time was observed. In contrast, during the WST test, only the activity of FPN was observed.
Conclusion: The results of the study support the hypothesis that the default-interventionist model of dual-process theory provides an accurate explanation of the cognitive mechanisms involved in reasoning. Thus, the response method (intuitive/analytical) determines which cognitive skills and brain regions would be involved in giving the response.   
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2022/01/17 | Accepted: 2022/03/5

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