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1- Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:  
Along with the growing percentage of the elderly population, neurodegenerative diseases including dementia are increasing in the world. Vascular risk factors are considered as a notable goal for cognitive decline prevention. We reviewed the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive decline prevention in the elderly to evaluate the quantity and quality of evidence in managing the elderly population with cognitive decline. Analysis data were available for 25 studies that examined the effect of controlling cardiovascular risk factors on the risk of cognitive impairment. These risk factors include diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, exercise, and physical activity. Most positive evidence was available for exercise and physical activity. On the other hand, diabetes mellitus and cholesterol modifications have no positive impact on cognitive function. Hypertension control studies were incongruous. The large-sampled robust Randomized Clinical Trial should be designed to reach sufficient evidence for several cardiovascular risk factors modifications in cognitive decline prevention.
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Clinical Neuroscience
Received: 2022/01/17 | Accepted: 2022/02/23

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