Volume 14, Issue 2 (March & April 2023)                   BCN 2023, 14(2): 171-184 | Back to browse issues page

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Bagheri Z, Khosrowabadi R, Hatami J, Armani Kian A R, Fatemi M J, Khatibi A. Differential Cortical Oscillatory Patterns in Amputees With and Without Phantom Limb Pain. BCN 2023; 14 (2) :171-184
URL: http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2211-en.html
1- Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Science Studies, Pardis, Iran.
2- Department of Cognitive Modeling, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Psychiatry, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Science, Zanjan, Iran.
5- Department of Plastic Surgery, Hazrat Fatemeh Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6- Centre of Precision RehCentre of Precision Rehabilitation for Spinal Pain, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. , Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.abilitation for Spinal Pain, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) as neuropathic pain affects the life of amputees. It is believed an efficient PLP treatment should consider the underlying neurological mechanisms. Hereby, we investigated brain activity in PLP and its relationships to the psychological and cognitive dimensions of chronic pain. We investigate differences in resting brain activities between amputees with and without pain. We hypothesize significant differences in the motor cortex and parietal cortex activity that are related to pain perception. Also, we hypothesize two groups have significant differences in cognitive and psychological components.
Methods: Behavioral assessment (psychological status, life satisfaction, and pain level) and EEG signals of 19 amputees (12 without pain and 7 with pain) were recorded. Data were statistically compared between the two groups. Also, the association between behavioral and neurophysiological data was computed. 
Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the pain group for the beta and gamma waves, as well as, for the theta and delta waves in the posterior temporal on both sides, during the eye-open condition. The eyes-closed condition showed that the delta waves were decreased on the right side of the cortex. Also, data showed a significant difference in the correlation of pain features with brain waves between the two groups. 
Conclusion: Significant differences were mostly observed in regions related to pain perception rather than the motor cortex. This can be due to the learned strategies to deal with pain and the degree of pain. Results showed maladaptive cognitive processes had a relationship with brain wave activities. According to the result of brain wave activities, it seems that cognitive factors have a role in the experience of PLP rather than neuroplasticity through amputation.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2021/07/4 | Accepted: 2021/09/20 | Published: 2023/03/1

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