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1- Department of Clinical Psychology and Addiction Studies, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
2- Department of Neuroscience and Addiction Studies, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Abstract:  
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that Matrix, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and cognitive modification treatments could lead to numerous psychological improvements in patients suffering from substance use disorders. Previous research has shown that other therapeutic interventions could be useful in managing stimulant abuse in addition to Matrix treatment The present study aimed at comparison of the effectiveness of matrix therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive rehabilitation treatments in attention bias modification and craving reduction in amphetamine drug users.
Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and three-month follow-up. Forty subjects taking amphetamine were selected by convenient sampling method and were randomly divided into three groups, including the matrix therapy, cognitive rehabilitation and rTMS as intervention groups and control groups (10 subjects in each group). The matrix group received 24 treatment sessions, 3 sessions per week and cognitive rehabilitation group recivied 15  treatment sessions (3 sessions per week). The group with rTMS treatment participated in a total of 10 sessions every other day. Questionnaires and dot-Probe tasks were performed as the cognitive software before and after the therapeutic interventions and one month after the interventions as a follow-up test. 
Results: The results showed that the effect of time on craving assessment in three stages was significant in all the study's four groups. In the experimental groups of Matrix, rTMS, and cognitive rehabilitation, the effect of time on the severity of addiction dependence and attentional bias was significantly different in three stages. In the control group, the effect of time in three stages of assessment of addiction severity and attention bias was not significant. Also, there was a significant decrease in the mean of craving in Matrix, rTMS, and cognitive rehabilitation groups from pre-treatment to post-treatment and from pre-treatment to follow-up stages. The mean addiction severity was significantly decreased from pre-treatment to post-treatment and from pre-treatment to follow-up stage in the Matrix, rTMS, and cognitive rehabilitation groups.
Conclusion: The current study's findings indicated that all three interventions effectively reduced amphetamine craving and attentional bias. All three approaches produced positive therapeutic outcomes.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2021/02/4 | Accepted: 2021/07/24

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