Volume 13, Issue 1 (January & February 2022)                   BCN 2022, 13(1): 81-96 | Back to browse issues page

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Faridi A, Taremian F, Thatcher R W, Dadashi M, Moloodi R. Comparison of LORETA Z score Neurofeedback and Cognitive Rehabilitation in terms of their Effectiveness in Reducing Craving in Opioid Addicts. BCN 2022; 13 (1) :81-96
URL: http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-1564-en.html
1- Department of Clinical Psychology and Addiction Studies, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
2- Applied Neuroscience. Inc, Florida, USA.
3- Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that conventional neurofeedback and cognitive modification treatments have numerous psychological benefits for patients with substance use disorders. However, the effectiveness of LORETA (Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) Z Score Neurofeedback (LZNFB) and cognitive rehabilitation therapy in reducing opioid craving has not been investigated. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of LZNFB and cognitive rehabilitation therapy with Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in reducing craving in patients with opioid use disorder. 
Methods: Thirty patients with opioid use disorder undergoing MMT were randomly assigned into three groups: LZNFB with MMT, cognitive rehabilitation with MMT (as experimental groups), and MMT alone control group. The LZNFB and cognitive rehabilitation groups received 20 and 15 sessions of treatment, respectively. The three groups were assessed using several questionnaires and dot-probe task at pretest, posttest, and one-month follow-up. 
Results: The results showed that both experimental groups accomplished a significantly greater reduction in opioid craving than MMT alone group at posttest and follow-up (P<0.05). The LZNFB plus MMT group showed a greater decrease in opioid craving than the cognitive rehabilitation plus MMT group. In addition, the cognitive rehabilitation plus MMT group experienced greater improvement in attentional bias towards craving cues than the LZNFB with MMT group at posttest and follow-up. Finally, the LZNFB plus MMT group and cognitive rehabilitation plus MMT group got higher scores on the recovery assessment scale than MMT alone group at posttest and follow-up. According to study results, LZNFB training is more effective than cognitive rehabilitation in decreasing cravings and improving the quality of life in addiction to opioids. 
Conclusion: The current study’s findings provided preliminary support for the effectiveness of LZNFB and cognitive rehabilitation in reducing opioid craving, improving attentional bias towards craving cues, and the quality of life among Iranian opioid use patients. 
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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Clinical Neuroscience
Received: 2019/07/23 | Accepted: 2019/08/24 | Published: 2022/01/1

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