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1- Department of Physical Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.
3- Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
4- Department of Physiotherapy, School of Primary and Allied Health Care, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Introduction: Previous researches have found that unihemispheric concurrent dual-site anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCSUHCDS) of primary motor cortex (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would be more effective than conventional a-tDCS of M1 for induction of larger and longer-lasting M1 corticospinal excitability. The primary aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a-tDCSUHCDS and conventional M1 a-tDCS on the size and lasting of the motor learning in healthy individuals.  
Methods: In a randomized sham-controlled study, healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: experimental (a-tDCSUHCDS), control (M1 a-tDCS) and sham stimulation groups. Participants practiced serial response time task (SRTT) over three consecutive days while concurrently received a-tDCS. Using the skill measure, we assessed motor learning immediately after intervention at day 3 and 4 weeks after completion of experimental conditions.
Results: Data analysis revealed that all groups exhibited the improved trend over the training course (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in skill learning among groups at post intervention (P>0.05), while a significant improvement was observed between experimental and sham group at retention time (P<0.05). Moreover, no significant differences were found between control and two other groups at retention time (P>0.05).
Conclusion: These findings revealed a significant increase in skill acquisition by a-tDCSUHCDS technique at retention, which could be a valuable finding in neurorehabilitation.

Type of Study: Original | Subject: Clinical Neuroscience
Received: 2017/10/28 | Accepted: 2018/04/30

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