Volume 8, Issue 6 (November & December 2017)                   BCN 2017, 8(6): 435-442 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Noroozian M, Jafari Z, Shahmiri E, Omidvar S, Zendehbad A, Amini N, et al . Effect of Age, Gender and Hearing Loss on the Degree of Discomfort Due to Tinnitus. BCN. 2017; 8 (6) :435-442
URL: http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-777-en.html
1- Department of Geriatric, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Rehabilitation Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
4- Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5- Department of Memory and Behavioral Neurology, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6- Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
7- Tehran University of Medical SciencesDepartment of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Tinnitus is one of the complex symptoms of hearing described as a phantom auditory sensation without any external stimulation. Due to the subjective nature of tinnitus, perception and discomfort of tinnitus vary among the patients. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gender, age and the degree of hearing loss on discomfort due to tinnitus. 
Methods: Eighteen patients with tinnitus, aged 21-72 years, (9 males and 9 females) were recruited. Tinnitus discomfort was investigated by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) questionnaire. Psychoacoustic assessments of tinnitus and auditory threshold assessments were evaluated using a 2-channel clinical audiometer.
Results: The results showed no significant correlation between THI scores with loudness matching (P=0.187), mean of auditory threshold (P=0.304), gender (P=0.93) and age (P=0.200). Also, no significant correlation was found between maximal level of hearing loss and pitch matching (P=0.208).
Conclusion: The study findings suggests that tinnitus is not correlated with age, gender and hearing loss. Overall, tinnitus is a complicated clinical condition which its real impact and degree of discomfort are unclear. More investigation is needed to clarify the factors involving in tinnitus annoyance.

Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2016/05/25 | Accepted: 2016/06/17 | Published: 2017/11/1

1. Axelsson, A. (1991). Causes of tinnitus. Paper presented at the 4th International Tinnitus Seminar, Bordeaux, France, 27-30 August 1991.
2. Bahmad, F. M., Venosa, A. R., & Oliveira, C. A. (2006). Benzodiazepines and GABAergics in treating severe disabling tinnitus of predominantly cochlear origin. International Tinnitus Journal, 12(2), 140-4. PMID: 17260879 [PMID]
3. Baskill, J. L., & Coles, R. R. A. (1999). Relationship between tinnitus loudness and severity. Paper presented at the 6th International Tinnitus Seminar. Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5-9 September 1999.
4. Coelho, C. C. D. B., Sanchez, T. G., & Bento, R. F. (2004). [Characteristics Tinnitus in Patients Given Reference Service (Portuguese)]. rq. Otorrinolaringol, 8(3), 216-224.
5. Coles, R. R. A. (1984). Epidemiology of tinnitus: (1) Prevalence. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 98(S9), 7–15. doi: 10.1017/s1755146300090041 [DOI:10.1017/S1755146300090041]
6. Crummer, R. W., & Hassan, G. A. (2004). Diagnostic approach to tinnitus. American Family Physician, 69(1), 120-6. [PMID]
7. Dias, A., & Cordeiro, R. (2008). Association between hearing loss level and degree of discomfort introduced by tinnitus in workers exposed to noise. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 74(6), 876–83. doi: 10.1016/s1808-8694(15)30148-8 [DOI:10.1016/S1808-8694(15)30148-8]
8. Erlandsson, S. I., & Holgers, K. M. (2001). The impact of perceived tinnitus severity on health-related quality of life with aspects of gender. Noise and Health, 3(10), 39-51. PMID: 12689455 [PMID]
9. Figueiredo, R. R., Rates, M. A., de Azevedo, A. A., de Oliveira, P. M., & de Navarro, P. B. (2010). Correlation analysis of hearing thresholds, validated questionnaires and psychoacoustic measurements in tinnitus patients. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 76(4), 522-6. PMID: 20835541 [DOI:10.1590/S1808-86942010000400018] [PMID]
10. Fioretti, A., Fusetti, M., & Eibenstein, A. (2013). Association between sleep disorders, hyperacusis and tinnitus: Evaluation with tinnitus questionnaires. Noise and Health, 15(63), 91. doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.110287 [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.110287]
11. Flores, L., Rosito, L., Seimetz, B., Dall'Igna, C., & Teixeira, A. (2015). Pitch and loudness from tinnitus in individuals with noise-induced hearing loss. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, 20(3), 248–53. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1562935 [DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1562935]
12. Granjeiro, R. C., Kehrle, H. M., Bezerra, R. L., Almeida, V. F., André, L. L. S., & Oliveira, C. A. (2008). Transient and distortion product evoked oto-acoustic emissions in normal hearing patients with and without tinnitus. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 138(4), 502–6. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2007.11.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.otohns.2007.11.012]
13. Hallam, R. S., Jakes, S. C., Chambers, C., & Hinchcliffe, R. (1985). A comparison of different methods for assessing the "Intensity" of tinnitus. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 99(5-6), 501–8. doi: 10.3109/00016488509182253 [DOI:10.3109/00016488509182253]
14. Hiller, W., & Goebel, G. (2006). Factors influencing tinnitus loudness and annoyance. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 132(12), 1323-30. doi: 10.1001/archotol.132.12.1323 [DOI:10.1001/archotol.132.12.1323]
15. Jastreboff, P. J., & Hazell, J. W. P. (1993). A neurophysiological approach to tinnitus: Clinical implications. British Journal of Audiology, 27(1), 7–17. doi: 10.3109/03005369309077884 [DOI:10.3109/03005369309077884]
16. Jayarajan, V., Bartlett, J., & Ratnayake, S. A. B. (2009). Could an underlying hearing loss be a significant factor in the handicap caused by tinnitus. Noise and Health, 11(44), 156. doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.53362 [DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.53362]
17. Karatas, E., & Deniz, M. (2011). The comparison of acoustic and psychic parameters of subjective tinnitus. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(2), 441–7. doi: 10.1007/s00405-011-1655-2 [DOI:10.1007/s00405-011-1655-2]
18. König, O., Schaette, R., Kempter, R., & Gross, M. (2006). Course of hearing loss and occurrence of tinnitus. Hearing Research, 221(1-2), 59–64. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2006.07.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2006.07.007]
19. Kuk, F. K., Tyler, R. S., Russell, D., & Jordan, H. (1990). The psychometric properties of a tinnitus handicap questionnaire. Ear and Hearing, 11(6), 434–45. doi: 10.1097/00003446-199012000-00005 [DOI:10.1097/00003446-199012000-00005]
20. Lindgren, T., Wieslander, G., Dammström, B. G., & Norbäck, D. (2009). Tinnitus among airline pilots: Prevalence and effects of age, flight experience, and other noise. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 80(2), 112–6. doi: 10.3357/asem.2364.2009 [DOI:10.3357/ASEM.2364.2009]
21. Mahmoudian, S., Shahmiri, E., Rouzbahani, M., Jafari, Z., Reza Keyhani, M., Rahimi, F., et al. (2011). Persian language version of the" Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": Translation, standardization, validity and reliability. International Tinnitus Journal, 16(2), 93-103. PMID: 22249867 [PMID]
22. Martines, F., Bentivegna, D., Di Piazza, F., Martines, E., Sciacca, V., & Martinciglio, G. (2010). Investigation of tinnitus patients in Italy: Clinical and audiological characteristics. International Journal of Otolaryngology, 2010, 1–8. doi: 10.1155/2010/265861 [DOI:10.1155/2010/265861]
23. Martines, F., Bentivegna, D., Martines, E., Sciacca, V., & Martinciglio, G. (2010a). Assessing audiological, pathophysiological and psychological variables in tinnitus patients with or without hearing loss. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 267(11), 1685–93. doi: 10.1007/s00405-010-1302-3 [DOI:10.1007/s00405-010-1302-3]
24. Martines, F., Bentivegna, D., Martines, E., Sciacca, V., & Martinciglio, G. (2010b). Characteristics of tinnitus with or without hearing loss: Clinical observations in Sicilian tinnitus patients. Auris Nasus Larynx, 37(6), 685–93. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2010.03.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.anl.2010.03.008]
25. Meric, C., Gartner, M., Collet, L., & Chéry-Croze, S. (1998). Psychopathological profile of tinnitus sufferers: Evidence concerning the relationship between tinnitus features and impact on life. Audiology and Neurotology, 3(4), 240–52. doi: 10.1159/000013796 [DOI:10.1159/000013796]
26. Newman, C. W., Jacobson, G. P., & Spitzer, J. B. (1996). Development of the tinnitus handicap inventory. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 122(2), 143–8. doi: 10.1001/archotol.1996.01890140029007 [DOI:10.1001/archotol.1996.01890140029007]
27. Norena, A., Micheyl, C., Chéry Croze, S., & Collet, L. (2002). Psychoacoustic characterization of the tinnitus spectrum: Implications for the underlying mechanisms of tinnitus. Audiology and Neurotology, 7(6), 358–69. doi: 10.1159/000066156 [DOI:10.1159/000066156]
28. Pan, T., Tyler, R. S., Ji, H., Coelho, C., Gehringer, A. K., & Gogel, S. A. (2009). The relationship between tinnitus pitch and the audiogram. International Journal of Audiology, 48(5), 277–94. doi: 10.1080/14992020802581974 [DOI:10.1080/14992020802581974]
29. Pinto, P. C. L., Sanchez, T. G., & Tomita, S. (2010). The impact of gender, age and hearing loss on tinnitus severity. Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, 76(1), 18-24. PMID: 20339684 [DOI:10.1590/S1808-86942010000100004] [PMID]
30. Roberts, L. E., Moffat, G., & Bosnyak, D. J. (2006). Residual inhibition functions in relation to tinnitus spectra and auditory threshold shift. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 126(sup556), 27–33. doi: 10.1080/03655230600895358 [DOI:10.1080/03655230600895358]
31. Savastano, M. (2008). Tinnitus with or without hearing loss: Are its characteristics different. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 265(11), 1295–1300. doi: 10.1007/s00405-008-0630-z [DOI:10.1007/s00405-008-0630-z]
32. Schecklmann, M., Vielsmeier, V., Steffens, T., Landgrebe, M., Langguth, B., & Kleinjung, T. (2012). Relationship between audiometric slope and tinnitus pitch in tinnitus patients: Insights into the mechanisms of tinnitus generation. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e34878. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034878 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034878]
33. Schleuning II, A. J. (1991). Management of the patient with tinnitus. Medical Clinics of North America, 75(6), 1225–37. doi: 10.1016/s0025-7125(16)30383-2 [DOI:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)30383-2]
34. Searchfield, G., Jerram, C., Wise, K., & Raymond, S. (2007). The impact of hearing loss on tinnitus severity. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology, 29(2), 67–76. doi: 10.1375/audi.29.2.67 [DOI:10.1375/audi.29.2.67]
35. Sereda, M., Hall, D. A., Bosnyak, D. J., Edmondson Jones, M., Roberts, L. E., Adjamian, P., et al. (2011). Re-examining the relationship between audiometric profile and tinnitus pitch. International Journal of Audiology, 50(5), 303–12. doi: 10.3109/14992027.2010.551221 [DOI:10.3109/14992027.2010.551221]
36. Seydel, C., Haupt, H., Olze, H., Szczepek, A. J., & Mazurek, B. (2013). Gender and chronic tinnitus. Ear and Hearing, 34(5), 661–72. doi: 10.1097/aud.0b013e31828149f2 [DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e31828149f2]
37. Sweetow, R. W. (1986). Cognitive aspects of tinnitus patient management. Ear and Hearing, 7(6), 390–6. doi: 10.1097/00003446-198612000-00008 [DOI:10.1097/00003446-198612000-00008]
38. Valente, J. P., Pinheiro, L. A., Carvalho, G. M., Guimarães, A. C., Mezzalira, R., Stoler, G., et al. (2012). Evaluation of factors related to the tinnitus disturbance. The International Tinnitus Journal, 17(1), 21-5. [PMID]
39. Vallianatou, N. G., Christodoulou, P., Nestoros, J. N., & Helidonis, E. (2001). Audiologic and psychological profile of Greek patients with tinnitus—Preliminary findings. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 22(1), 33–7. doi: 10.1053/ajot.2001.20689 [DOI:10.1053/ajot.2001.20689]
40. Vanneste, S., Joos, K., & De Ridder, D. (2012). Prefrontal cortex based sex differences in tinnitus perception: Same tinnitus intensity, same tinnitus distress, different mood. PLoS ONE, 7(2), e31182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031182 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031182]
41. Welch, D., & Dawes, P. J. D. (2008). Personality and perception of tinnitus. Ear and Hearing, 29(5), 684–92. doi: 10.1097/aud.0b013e318177d9ac [DOI:10.1097/AUD.0b013e318177d9ac]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb