Volume 8, Issue 6 (November & December 2017)                   BCN 2017, 8(6): 503-512 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Abid M, Gosh A K, Ali Khan N. In Vivo Psychopharmacological Investigation of Delphinium Denudatum and Amaranthus Spinosus Extracts on Wistar Rats. BCN. 2017; 8 (6) :503-512
URL: http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-771-en.html
1- PhD Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, India.
2- Department of Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, India.
3- Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Moradabad, India.

Introduction: In our modern era, life style of human being changes and updates every day that may affect their health status. There is an incredible expectation that natural origin drugs lack undesirable effects not like synthetic drugs, though have the same potency and efficacy. No scientific data is available about the antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves. In this regard, the present study was designed to carry out comparative and combined study on antianxiety properties of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves.
Methods: Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves were defatted with petroleum ether, and then extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent by soxhlation process. The hydroalcoholic extract of both drugs singly and in combination were evaluated for their anxiolytic effects on Wistar albino rats in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg using different anti-anxiety tests like Elevated Plus Maze, Staircase, Actophotometer, and Light and Dark tests.
Results: Both hydroalcoholic extracts possessed flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, steroids, sterols, etc. In the dose dependent manner, both the hydroalcoholic extracts produced good anxiolytic activity. The best result was obtained by a combination of them in higher dose.
Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extracts of Delphinium denudatum root and Amaranthus spinosus leaves and their combination may act as a potent anxiolytic agents in rats. Amaranthus spinosus was found to be more effective than Delphinium denudatum.

Type of Study: Original | Subject: Behavioral Neuroscience
Received: 2016/05/6 | Accepted: 2017/01/27 | Published: 2017/11/1

1. Amresh, G., Reddy, G. D., Rao, C. V., & Singh, P. N. (2007). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cissampelos pareira root in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(3), 526–31. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.009 [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.009]
2. Anonymous. (1998). The wealth of India. New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate.
3. Anuradha, H., Srikumar, B. N., Shankaranarayana Rao, B. S., & Lakshmana, M. (2007). Euphorbia hirta reverses chronic stress-induced anxiety and mediates its action through the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine receptor-Cl− channel complex. Journal of Neural Transmission, 115(1), 35–42. doi: 10.1007/s00702-007-0821-6 [DOI:10.1007/s00702-007-0821-6]
4. Barua, C., Talukdar, A., Begum, S., Borah, P., & Lahkar, M. (2012). Anxiolytic activity of methanol leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn in mice using experimental models of anxiety. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 44(1), 63. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.91869 [DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.91869]
5. Bodhankar, S., Ambavade, S., Mhetre, N., & Tate, V. (2006). Pharmacological evaluation of the extracts of sphaeranthus indicusflowers on anxiolytic activity in mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 38(4), 254. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.27021 [DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.27021]
6. Cassano, G. B., Pini, S., Saettoni, M., & Dell'Osso, L. (1999). Multiple anxiety disorder comorbidity in patients with mood spectrum disorders with psychotic features. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 474-6. [PMID]
7. Dhawan, K., Dhawan, S., & Chhabra, S. (2003). Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: A non-habit forming anxiolytic. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(2), 215-22. PMID: 12935433 [PMID]
8. Evans, W. C. (2009). Trease and evans' pharmacognosy E-book. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00031-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00026-5 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00017-4 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00030-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00020-4 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00029-0 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00016-2 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00004-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00022-8 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00014-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00024-1 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00018-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00027-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00023-X [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-7020-2933-2.00005-8]
9. Gries, D. A., Condouris, G. A., Shey, Z., & Houpt, M. (2005). Anxiolytic-like action in mice treated with nitrous oxide and oral triazolam or diazepam. Life Sciences, 76(15), 1667–74. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2004.07.028 [DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2004.07.028]
10. Herrera Ruiz, M., Román Ramos, R., Zamilpa, A., Tortoriello, J., & Jiménez Ferrer, J. E. (2008). Flavonoids from Tilia americana with anxiolytic activity in plus-maze test. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 118(2), 312–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.019 [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2008.04.019]
11. Kawade, R. M., Ghiware, N. B., Sarje, S. K., & Vadvalkar, S. M. (2013). A pharmacognostic and pharmacological review: Amaranthus spinosus. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2(6), 2099-110.
12. Keshetti, S., Garige, B. R., & Vattikuti, U. R. (2016). In vivostudy on depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of galphimia glaucastem methanol extract. Pharmacognosy Research, 8(4), 219-25. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.188878 [DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.188878]
13. Kokate, C. K. (1986). Preliminary phytochemical analysis. In: Kokate C. K (ed.), Practical pharmacognosy. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan.
14. Kulkarni, S. K. (1987). Handbook of experimental pharmacology. New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan.
15. Kumar, B. A., Lakshman, K., Velmurugan, C., Sridhar, S. M., & Gopisetty, S. (2014). Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 5(1), 11-7. PMCID:PMC4202599
16. Kumar, D., & Bhat, Z. A. (2012). Anti-anxiety activity of methanolic extracts of different parts of angelica archangelica linn. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 2(3), 235–41. doi: 10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30105-5 [DOI:10.1016/S2225-4110(16)30105-5]
17. Kumar, S., Maheshwari, K. K., & Singh, V. (2009). Effects of mangifera indica fruit extract on cognitive deficits in mice. Journal of Environmental Biology, 30(4), 563-6. PMID: 20120497 [PMID]
18. Kumar, V. (2000). Neuropsychopharmacological studies on Indian hypericum perforatum Linn (PhD thesis). Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University.
19. Kumar, V., Chatterjee, S., Singh, G., Chauhan, S., & Rai, G. (2013). Potential antianxiety activity of Fumaria indica: A preclinical study. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 9(33), 14. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.108129 [DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108129]
20. Kvetnansky, R., & Mikulaj, L. (1970). Adrenal and urinary catecholamines in rats during adaptation to repeated immobilization stress. Endocrinology, 87(4), 738–43. doi: 10.1210/endo-87-4-738 [DOI:10.1210/endo-87-4-738]
21. Mahendra, P., & Bisht, S. (2011). Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43(5), 574. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.84975 [DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.84975]
22. Mishra, S. B., Verma, A., Mukerjee, A., & Vijayakumar, M. (2012). Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaf extract attenuates streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes and oxidative stress in albino rats: A histopathological analysis. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(3), 1647–52. doi: 10.1016/s2221-1691(12)60470-5 [DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60470-5]
23. Mitra, P. K. (2013). Comparative evaluation of anti gastric ulcer activity of root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus linn in rats. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 1(2), 22-9.
24. Nade, V., Yadav, A., & Kawale, L. (2008). Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 40(1), 32. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.40487 [DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40487]
25. Nadkarni, K. M. (1976). Indian materia medica. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Private Limited.
26. Nic Dhonnchadha, B. Á., Bourin, M., & Hascoët, M. (2003). Anxiolytic-like effects of 5-HT2 ligands on three mouse models of anxiety. Behavioural Brain Research, 140(1-2), 203–14. doi: 10.1016/s0166-4328(02)00311-x [DOI:10.1016/S0166-4328(02)00311-X]
27. Nogueira, E., & Vassilieff, V. . (2000). Hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects of Rubus brasiliensis: Involvement of GABAA-system. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 70(3), 275–80. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(99)00205-6 [DOI:10.1016/S0378-8741(99)00205-6]
28. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (1993). OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
29. Padovan, C. M., & Guimarães, F. S. (2000). Restraint-induced hypoactivity in an elevated plus-maze. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 33(1), 79–83. doi: 10.1590/s0100-879x2000000100011 [DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2000000100011]
30. Priyanka, B., Sridhar, Y., & Shankaraiah, P. (2012). Antidepressant and muscle relaxant activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Roots in mice. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(1), 193-200.
31. Qudsia, N., & Jafri, M. A. (2006). Unani drug, Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum Wall.): A review. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 5(4), 463-7.
32. Rahman, S. Z., Khan, R. A., & Kumar, A. (2007). Pharmacological study of Delphinium denudatum wall in morphine deaddiction. Journal of Neurochemistry, 102(1), 142-3.
33. Rakotonirina, V. S., Bum, E. N., Rakotonirina, A., & Bopelet, M. (2001). Sedative properties of the decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus articulatus. Fitoterapia, 72(1), 22–9. doi: 10.1016/s0367-326x(00)00243-4 [DOI:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00243-4]
34. Ramos, A., Pereira, E., Martins, G. C., Wehrmeister, T. D., & Izídio, G. S. (2008). Integrating the open field, elevated plus maze and light/dark box to assess different types of emotional behaviors in one single trial. Behavioural Brain Research, 193(2), 277–88. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.06.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2008.06.007]
35. Rauf, E. (2013). Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum): A potent drug for various ailments. American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research, 1(9), 23-6.
36. Singh, N., & Chopra, K. L. (1962). Diterpine alkaloid isolation and study of two new alkaloids. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 14(1), 288–93. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.1962.tb11096.x [DOI:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1962.tb11096.x]
37. Zafar, S., Ahmad, M. A., & Siddiqui, T. A. (2003). Jadwar (Delphinium denudatum wall.) roots: A boon in Unani medicine. Hamdard Medicus (Pakistan), 6(2), 9-14.

Send email to the article author

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb