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1- School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Niavaran, P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran, Iran.
2- Animal Core Facility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
4- Cognitive Systems Laboratory, Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence (CIPCE), School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:  
Background. In-vivo neural recordings from primates require to install implants on the skull of the animal. Despite some improvements, current routines still risk predisposition to infection and failure or impose constant discomfort by placing heaviness on the top of the head.
New Methods. Using a custom-designed imaging adapter, MR and CT imaging of the head region were obtained. Then, based on reconstructed model of skull the implants were designed and constructed by CNC machine. During the surgical operation, the position of each implant was sketched on the skull and implants were slipped onto their predicted site and followed their sketched boundaries without any manual reshaping. 
Results. We have performed this procedure on two monkeys. After surgery, location of implants has been verified by CT imaging. The recovery period was without significant complications with minimal infection.
Comparison with Exiting methods.Our experiment showed that through the application of image-guided design, it is possible to better utilize the skull area to gain access to brain regions. At the same time, our method reduced the possibility of gap formation between implant and skull, open skin margins, and reduced the time and cost of operation which altogether results in a reduced overall chance of infection and failure and provides animal friendly operational surgery procedure.
Conclusion.  Despite some improvements, more refinements of methodology are still required. Here, we propose and report an improvement for the design and installation of biocompatible implants in low cost providing access to at least three brain regions.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2020/01/15 | Accepted: 2020/05/9 | Published: 2018/03/15

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