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1- Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences,
2- Faculty of Electrical, Biomedical and Mechatronics Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University
3- Abadan Faculty of Medical Sciences
4- Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences
Abstract:  
Introduction: Today, humans leave in a world surrounded by electromagnetic fields. Numerous studies have been carried out to discover the biological, physiological, and behavioral effects of electromagnetic fields on humans and animals. Given the biological similarities between monkeys and humans, the goal of the present research was to examine Visual Memory (VM), hormonal, genomic, and anatomic changes, and changes of the amygdala function in the male rhesus macaques who exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF/MF).
Materials and methods: Four male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used. For the behavioral tests the animals were needed to be fasting for 17 hours, and for the behavioral tests such as visual memory, cooperation of the animal was necessary. Using the radiation protocol, two of the monkeys were exposed to 12-Hz electromagnetic fields with a magnitude of 0.7 microtesla (electromagnetic radiation) four hours a day for a month. Before and after the exposure, a visual memory test was conducted using a coated device (visible reward) on a movable stand. Ten mL of blood was obtained from the femoral artery of the monkeys and half of it was used to examine cortisol serum levels using MyBioSource kits (made in the USA). The other half of blood samples were used to extract lymphocytes for assaying expressions of Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) genes before and after radiation using the PCR method. Anatomic studies of the amygdala were carried out based on pre- and post-radiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Findings: Research results indicated that visual memory in male primates increased significantly at the 12Hz frequency. Hormonal analysis at the 12Hz frequency showed a decrease in cortisol serum levels. However, visual memory and serum cortisol levels did not change considerably in male primates in the control group. There was no considerable amygdala volumetric difference at the 12 Hz frequency. The expression of the GR genes decreased at 12Hz compared to the control group.
Conclusion: In short, these results indicated that ELF may have a beneficial value for memory enhancement as indicated by the fact that exposure to the 12 HZ ELF can enhance visual memory. This may be due to a decrease in plasma cortisol, and/or expression of GR genes. Moreover, direct involvement of the amygdala in this regard cannot be recommended.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Computational Neuroscience
Received: 2019/10/8 | Accepted: 2020/08/4

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