Volume 9, Issue 5 (September & October 2018 2018)                   BCN 2018, 9(5): 357-366 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohammadifard F, Alimohammadi S. Chemical Composition and Role of Opioidergic System in Antinociceptive Effect of Ziziphora Clinopodioides Essential Oil. BCN. 2018; 9 (5) :357-366
URL: http://bcn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-1066-en.html
1- Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Introduction: Ziziphora Clinopodioides has been used widely for various therapeutic purposes in Iranian folk medicine. The current study aimed to determine interaction of antinociceptive effect of the Essential Oil of Ziziphora Clinopodioides (EOZC) and opioidergic system in male rats using formalin test. 
Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The groups 1 to 7 were injected with normal saline, vehicle (Tween-80, 0.5%), 10, 20, 40 mg/kg of the EOZC, morphine (5 mg/kg) and naloxone (2 mg/kg), respectively. Thirty minutes later, the formalin test was performed by intraplantar injection of formalin (50 µL, 2%). In group 8, naloxone (2 mg/kg) was injected 15 min before injection of EOZC (20 mg/kg), followed by formalin at 15 min later. The formalin test was done as time spent for licking and biting of the injected paw. Formalin induced a biphasic pain reaction. The chemical composition of EOZC was identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results: EOZC (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) dose dependently and morphine (5 mg/kg) reduced pain responses in the both phases of pain (P<0.05). Naloxone (2 mg/kg) alone had no effect on the severity of pain (P>0.05) but pretreatment with naloxone inhibited EOZC-induced antinociception activity (P<0.05). Based on the GC-MS results, EOZC comprised 65.22% carvacrol, 19.51% thymol, 4.86% p-cymene and 4.63% γ-terpinene. 
Conclusion: These results demonstrate that EOZC has antinociceptive effect and this effect might mediate via opioidergic pathways.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Behavioral Neuroscience
Received: 2017/11/6 | Accepted: 2018/03/31 | Published: 2018/09/1

1. Abbott, F. V., & Bonder, M. (1997). Options for management of acute pain in the rat. Veterinary Record, 140(21), 553-7. [DOI:10.1136/vr.140.21.553] [PMID] [DOI:10.1136/vr.140.21.553]
2. Abbott, F. V., Franklin, K. B., & Westbrook, R. F. (1995). The formalin test: Scoring properties of the first and second phases of the pain response in rats. Pain, 60(1), 91-102. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(94)00095-V] [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(94)00095-V]
3. Aghajani, Z., Assadian, F., Masoudi, S., Chalabian, F., Esmaeili, A., Tabatabaei Anaraki, M., et al. (2008). Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activities of the oil of Ziziphora Clinopodioides and Z. capitata subsp. capitata from Iran. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 44(3), 387-9. [DOI:10.1007/s10600-008-9073-4] [DOI:10.1007/s10600-008-9073-4]
4. Akbari, E., Mirzaei, E., & Shahabi Majd, N. (2013). Long-term morphine-treated rats are more sensitive to antinociceptive effect of diclofenac than the morphine-naive rats. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 12(1), 175-84. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Almeida, R. N., Navarro, D. S., & Barbosa-Filho, J. M. (2001). Plants with central analgesic activity. Phytomedicine, 8(4), 310-22. [DOI:10.1078/0944-7113-00050] [PMID] [DOI:10.1078/0944-7113-00050]
6. Altiok, D., Altiok, E., & Tihminlioglu, F. (2010). Physical, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of chitosan films incorporated with thyme oil for potential wound healing applications. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21(7), 2227-36. [DOI:10.1007/s10856-010-4065-x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1007/s10856-010-4065-x]
7. Amresh, G., Reddy, G. D., Rao, Ch. V., & Singh, P. N. (2007a). Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Cissampelos pareira root in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 110(3), 526-31. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.009] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2006.10.009]
8. Amresh, G., Zeashan, H., Rao, Ch. V. R., & Singh, P. N. (2007b). Prostaglandin mediated anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Cissampelos pareira. Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia, 49(2), 153-60.
9. Ashok, P. K., & Upadhyaya, K. (2013). Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts of Artemisia vulgaris L. in experimental animal models. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature, 3(1), 101-5. [DOI:10.1080/22311866.2013.782761] [DOI:10.1080/22311866.2013.782761]
10. Beer, A. M., Lukanov, J., & Sagorchev, P. (2007). Effect of thymol on the spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscles. Phytomedicine, 14(1), 65-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.11.010] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2006.11.010]
11. Behravan, J., Ramezani, M., Hassanzadeh, M. K., Eskandari, M., Kasaian, J., & Sabeti, Z. (2007). Composition, antimycotic and antibacterial activity of Ziziphora Clinopodioides Lam. essential oil from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 10(4), 339-45. [DOI:10.1080/0972060X.2007.10643565] [DOI:10.1080/0972060X.2007.10643565]
12. Bodnar, R. J. (2016). Endogenous opiates and behavior. Peptides, 75, 18-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.10.009] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.10.009]
13. Borowicz, K. K., Kleinrok, Z., & Czuczwar, S. J. (2003). Influence of sex hormone antagonists on the anticonvulsant action of conventional antiepileptic drugs against amygdala-kindled seizures in male and female rats. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 13(4), 257-65. [DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00013-0] [DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00013-0]
14. de Oliveira, A. M., Conserva, L. M., de Souza Ferro, J. N., de Almeida Brito, F., Lyra Lemos, R. P., & Barreto, E. (2012). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of octacosanol from the leaves of Sabicea grisea var. Grisea in mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(2), 1598-611. [DOI:10.3390/ijms13021598] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3390/ijms13021598]
15. de Oliveira Júnior, R. G., Ferraz, C. A. A., Silva, J. C., de Oliveira, A. P., Diniz, T. C., E Silva, M. G., et al. (2017). Antinociceptive effect of the essential oil from croton conduplicatus kunth (Euphorbiaceae). Molecules, 22(6), 900. [DOI:10.3390/molecules22060900] [DOI:10.3390/molecules22060900]
16. De Sousa, D. P. (2011). Analgesic-like activity of essential oils constituents. Molecules, 16(3), 2233-52. [DOI:10.3390/molecules16032233] [PMID] [DOI:10.3390/molecules16032233]
17. Dubuisson, D., & Dennis, S. G. (1977). The formalin test: A quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain, 4(2), 161-74. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(77)90130-0] [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(77)90130-0]
18. Elisabetsky, E., Amador, T. A., Albuquerque, R. R., Nunes, D. S., & Carvalho Ado, C. (1995). Analgesic activity of Psychotria colorata (Willd. ex R. & S.) Muell. Arg. alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 48(2), 77-83. [DOI:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01287-N] [DOI:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01287-N]
19. Erami, E., Azhdari-Zarmehri, H., Imoto, K., & Furue, H. (2017). Characterization of nociceptive behaviors induced by formalin in glabrous and hairy skin of the rat. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 8(1), 37-42. [DOI:10.15412/J.BCN.03080105] [DOI:10.15412/J.BCN.03080105]
20. Grace, P. M., Hutchinson, M. R., Maier, S. F., & Watkins, L. R. (2014). Pathological pain and the neuroimmune interface. Nature Reviews Immunology, 14(4), 217-31. [DOI:10.1038/nri3621] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1038/nri3621]
21. Guimarães, A. G., Oliveira, G. F., Melo, M. S., Cavalcanti, S. C., Antoniolli, A. R., Bonjardim, L. R., et al. (2010). Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 107(6), 949-57. [DOI:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00609.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00609.x]
22. Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., et al. (2002). Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 19(8), 571-79. [DOI:10.1097/00003643-200208000-00005] [PMID] [DOI:10.1097/00003643-200208000-00005]
23. Hajhashemi, V., Sajjadi, S. E., & Zomorodkia, M. (2011). Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Bunium persicum essential oil, hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts in animal models. Pharmaceutical Biology, 49(2), 146-51. [DOI:10.3109/13880209.2010.504966] [PMID] [DOI:10.3109/13880209.2010.504966]
24. Hassanpour, S., Sadaghian, M., MaheriSis, N., Eshratkhah, B., & ChaichiSemsari, M. (2011). Effect of condensed tannin on controlling faecal protein excretion in nematode-infected sheep: In vivo study. Journal of Animal Science, 7, 896-900.
25. Karimi, H., Monajemi, R., & Amjad, L. (2014). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of artemisia deserti krasch (Extract in rats). International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 3(1), 1-6.
26. Khodaverdi-Samani, H., Pirbalouti, A. G., Shirmardi, H. A., & Malekpoor, F. (2015). Chemical composition of essential oils of Ziziphora Clinopodioides Lam. (Endemic Iranian herb) collected from different natural habitats. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 1(1), 57-62.
27. Lima, D. K., Ballico, L. J., Lapa, F. R., Gonçalves, H. P., de Souza, L. M., Iacomini, M., et al. (2012). Evaluation of the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastric antiulcer activities of the essential oil from Piper aleyreanum C.DC in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 142(1), 274-82. [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.016] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.05.016]
28. Mohammadi, B., Haeseler, G., Leuwer, M., Dengler, R., Krampfl, K., & Bufler, J. (2001). Structural requirements of phenol derivatives for direct activation of chloride currents via GABAA receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology, 421(2), 85-91. [DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01033-0] [DOI:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01033-0]
29. OECD. (2008). Test No. 425: Acute oral toxicity: Up-and-down procedure. In OECD publishing (Eds.), OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4 (pp. 1-27). Paris: OECD publishing.
30. Ozturk, S., & Ercisli, S. (2007). Antibacterial activity and chemical constitutions of Ziziphora Clinopodioides. Food Control, 18(5), 535-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.01.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.01.002]
31. Riedel, R., Marrassini, C., Anesini, C., & Gorzalczany, S. (2015). Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of Urera aurantiaca. Phytotherapy Research, 29(1), 59-66. [DOI:10.1002/ptr.5226] [PMID] [DOI:10.1002/ptr.5226]
32. Sarmento-Neto, J. F., do Nascimento, L. G., Felipe, C. F., & de Sousa, D. P. (2016). Analgesic potential of essential oils. Molecules, 21(1), E20. [DOI:10.3390/molecules21010020] [DOI:10.3390/molecules21010020]
33. Shahbazi, Y. (2015). Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial effect of Ziziphora Clinopodioides essential oil. Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21(2), 51-6. [DOI:10.15171/PS.2015.17] [DOI:10.15171/PS.2015.17]
34. Shibata, M., Ohkubo, T., Takahashi, H., & Inoki, R. (1989). Modified formalin test: Characteristic biphasic pain response. Pain, 38(3), 347-52. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(89)90222-4] [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(89)90222-4]
35. Sofiabadi, M., Azhdari-Zarmehri, H., Naderi, F., Ghalandari-Shamami, M., Sonboli, A., & Haghparast, A. (2014). Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae) on pain-related behaviors during formalin test in mice. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 5(2), 162-8. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMCID]
36. Tamaddonfard, E., & Hamzeh-Gooshchi, N. (2010). Effect of crocin on the morphine-induced antinociception in the formalin test in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 24(3), 410-3. [DOI:10.1002/ptr.2965] [PMID] [DOI:10.1002/ptr.2965]
37. Trescot, A. M., Datta, S., Lee, M., & Hansen, H. (2008). Opioid pharmacology. Pain Physician, 11 (2 Suppl), S133-53.
38. Vissers, K., Hoffmann, V., Geenen, F., Biermans, R., & Meert, T. (2003). Is the second phase of the formalin test useful to predict activity in chronic constriction injury models? A pharmacological comparison in different species. Pain Practice, 3(4), 298-309. [DOI:10.1111/j.1530-7085.2003.03033.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1530-7085.2003.03033.x]
39. Yama, O. E., Duru, F. I., Oremosu, A. A., Osinubi, A. A., Noronha, C. C., & Okanlawon, A. O. (2011). Sperm quotient in sprague-dawley rats fed graded doses of seed extract of momordica charantia. Middle East Fertility Society Journal, 16(2), 154-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.mefs.2011.02.001] [DOI:10.1016/j.mefs.2011.02.001]
40. Yousif, E. I., Ashoush, I. S., Donia, A. A., & Hala Goma, K. A. (2013). Critical control points for preparing chicken meals in a hospital kitchen. Annals of Agricultural Science, 58(2), 203-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2013.07.004] [DOI:10.1016/j.aoas.2013.07.004]
41. Zendehdel, M., Taati, M., Jadidoleslami, M., & Bashiri, A. (2011). Evaluation of pharmacological mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of teucrium polium on visceral pain in mice. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 12(4), 292-7.
42. Zendehdel, M., Torabi, Z., & Hassanpour, S. (2015). Antinociceptive mechanisms of Bunium persicum essential oil in the mouse writhing test: Role of opioidergic and histaminergic systems. Veterinarni Medicina, 60(2), 63-70. [DOI:10.17221/7988-VETMED] [DOI:10.17221/7988-VETMED]
43. Zimmermann, M. (1983). Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain, 16(2), 109-10. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(83)90201-4] [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(83)90201-4]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Basic and Clinical Neuroscience

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb