Volume 9, Issue 3 (Issue in Progress 2018 2018)                   BCN 2018, 9(3): 217-226 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- PhD Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
2- Health Matters First of Florida, Inc., Oakland, Florida, United States.
Introduction: Campus life tends to make social and academic demands on college students. To cope with these demands, students are required to use their neurocognitive skills of problem- solving and planning intentional actions that target towards adaptation to college. This paper presents an illuminating perspective that would inform understanding of a new approach to cognitive neuroscience. The linkage between cognition and adaptation was sought in the context of a cognitive neurodynamic approach proposed by the Intention, Meaning, and Perception (IMP) model of neuro-occupation. 
Methods: An ex post facto study was conducted on a convenience sample of 187 college students in Shiraz, Iran. A brief questionnaire was developed to screen participants for diversity of cognitive neurodynamic processing capacity and three standardized questionnaires were used to gather data about college adaptation manifestations. The partial correlation, 1-way, and 2-way ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data. 
Results: The partial correlation test showed large, positive correlation (r≥0.7, P<0.001) between elements of the cognitive neurodynamic process, denoting that the interrelated connections among intention, meaning, and perception were governed by feedback loops. One-way ANOVA test revealed that students with diverse cognitive neurodynamic processing capacity had a variety of college adaptation manifestations. Two-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant main effect for neurodynamic processing capacity (F2, 178=8.1, P<0.001). 
Conclusion: College adaptation could have been established by the cognitive neurodynamic process proposed by the IMP model. Therefore, it is advisable for faculty, mental health practitioners, and counselors who work with students at universities to understand this process and address students’ maladaptation to campus life.
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Cognitive Neuroscience
Received: 2017/03/1 | Accepted: 2017/10/14 | Published: 2018/05/1

1. Alt, D., & Itzkovich, Y. (2016). Adjustment to college and perceptions of faculty incivility. Current Psychology, 35(4), 657-66. [DOI:10.1007/s12144-015-9334-x] [DOI:10.1007/s12144-015-9334-x]
2. Baker, S. R. (2004). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational orientations: Their role in university adjustment, stress, well-being, and subsequent academic performance. Current Psychology, 23(3), 189–202. [DOI:10.1007/s12144-004-1019-9] [DOI:10.1007/s12144-004-1019-9]
3. Carter, R. E., Lubinsky, J., & Domholdt, E. (2011). Rehabilitation research: Principles and applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
4. Casillas, D., Davis, N. M., Loukas, K. M., & Schumacher, D. (2008). The nonlinear dynamics of occupation: A comparative analysis of nonlinear dynamics and sensory integration. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 1(2), 128-46. [DOI:10.1080/19411240802384235] [DOI:10.1080/19411240802384235]
5. Champagne, T. T., Ryan, J. K., Saccomando, H. M., & Lazzarini, I. (2007). A nonlinear dynamics approach to exploring the spiritual dimensions of occupation. Emergence: Complexity and Organization, 9(4), 29-43.
6. Consolvo, C. (2002). Building student success through enhanced, coordinated student services. Journal of College Student Development, 43(2), 284-87.
7. Cousins, C., Servaty Seib, H. L., & Lockman, J. (2015). College student adjustment and coping: Bereaved and nonbereaved students. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 74(4), 386-409. [DOI:10.1177/0030222815598911] [DOI:10.1177/0030222815598911]
8. Credé, M., & Niehorster, S. (2012). Adjustment to college as measured by the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire: A quantitative review of its structure and relationships with correlates and consequences. Educational Psychology Review, 24(1), 133-65. [DOI:10.1007/s10648-011-9184-5] [DOI:10.1007/s10648-011-9184-5]
9. Davidson, W. B., Beck, H. P., & Silver, C. N. (1999). Development and validation of scores on a measure of six academic orientations in college students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(4), 678-93. [DOI:10.1177/00131649921970107] [DOI:10.1177/00131649921970107]
10. Davis, N. M. (2009). Autism and transition: A nonlinear dynamics systems perspective. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 2(3-4), 221-37. [DOI:10.1080/19411240903392988] [DOI:10.1080/19411240903392988]
11. Derakhshanrad, S. A., Piven, E., & Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, B. (2017a). Adaption to stroke: A nonlinear thinking approach in occupational therapy. Occupational Therapy in Health Care, 31(3), 255-69. [DOI:10.1080/07380577.2017.1335922] [DOI:10.1080/07380577.2017.1335922]
12. Derakhshanrad, S. A., Piven, E., & Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, B. (2017b). Comparing the cognitive process of circular causality in two patients with strokes through qualitative analysis. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life sciences, 21(4), 555-67. PMID: 28923161
13. Derakhshanrad, S. A., Piven, E., Hosseini, S. A., Shahboulaghi, F. M., Nazeran, H., & Rassafiani, M. (2016). Exploring the nature of the intention, meaning and perception process of the Neuro-occupation model to understand adaptation to change. Occupational Therapy International, 23(1), 29-38. [DOI:10.1002/oti.1402] [DOI:10.1002/oti.1402]
14. Freeman, W. J. (1999). Consciousness, intentionality and causality. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(11-12), 143–72.
15. Freeman, W. J. (2000a). Neurodynamics: An exploration in mesoscopic brain dynamics. London: Springer. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4471-0371-4] [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4471-0371-4]
16. Freeman, W. J. (2000b). Mesoscopic neurodynamics: From neuron to brain. Journal of Physiology, 94(5-6), 303-22. [DOI:10.1016/S0928-4257(00)01090-1] [DOI:10.1016/S0928-4257(00)01090-1]
17. Freeman, W. J. (2003). A neurobiological theory of meaning in perception Part I: Information and meaning in nonconvergent and nonlocal brain dynamics. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 13(9), 2493-511. [DOI:10.1142/S0218127403008144] [DOI:10.1142/S0218127403008144]
18. Freeman, W. J. (2005). Brain dynamics: Brain chaos and intentionality. In E. Gordon (Ed.), Integrative Neuroscience: Bringing Together Biological, Psychological and Clinical Models of the Human brain. London: Harwood Academic Publishers.
19. Freeman, W. J., & Burns, J. (1996). Societies of brains: Walter Freeman in conversation with Jean Burns. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3(2), 172-80.
20. Haltiwanger, E., Lazzarini, I., & Nazeran, H. (2007). Application of nonlinear dynamics theory to Neuro-occupation: A case study of alcoholism. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 70(8), 349-57. [DOI:10.1177/030802260707000805] [DOI:10.1177/030802260707000805]
21. Hermans, H. J. (1970). A questionnaire measure of achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54(4), 353–63. [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/h0029675] [PMID]
22. Hoomon, H. A., & Asgari, A. (2001). Developing and standardization of Achievement Motivation Test (AMT). Psychological Research, 6(1-2), 9-32.
23. Katz, S., & Somers, C. L. (2015). Individual and environmental predictors of college adjustment: Prevention and intervention. Current Psychology, 36(1), 56-65. [DOI:10.1007/s12144-015-9384-0] [DOI:10.1007/s12144-015-9384-0]
24. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
25. Lazzarini, I. (2004). Neuro-occupation: The nonlinear dynamics of intention, meaning and perception. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(8), 342-52. [DOI:10.1177/030802260406700803] [DOI:10.1177/030802260406700803]
26. Lazzarini, I. (2005). A nonlinear approach to cognition: A web of ability and disability. In N. Katz (Ed.), Cognition and Occupation Across the Life Span: Models for Intervention in Occupational Therapy (pp. 211-33). Bethesda: American Occupational Therapy Association.
27. McKenzie, K., & Schweitzer, R. (2001). Who succeeds at university? Factors predicting academic performance in first year Australian university students. Higher Education Research & Development, 20(1), 21-33. [DOI:10.1080/07924360120043621] [DOI:10.1080/07924360120043621]
28. Mesrabadi, J., Jafariyan, S., & Ostovar, N. (2013). [Discriminative and construct validity of meaning in life questionnaire for Iranian students (Persian)]. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 7(1), 83-90.
29. Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows. New York: Open University Press. [DOI:10.1080/00396338.2013.784467] [DOI:10.1080/00396338.2013.784467]
30. Piven, E., & Derakhshanrad, S. A. (2017). A case study demonstrating reduction of aggressive client behaviors using the Neuro-Occupation model: Addressing professional burnout through nonlinear thinking. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 33(2), 179-94. [DOI:10.1080/0164212X.2017.1278734] [DOI:10.1080/0164212X.2017.1278734]
31. Rafii, F., Sarami Rasouli, F., Najafi ghezeljeh, T., & Haghani, H. (2014). [The relationship between academic procrastination, academic achievement, and self-efficacy in nursing students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 14(1), 32-39.
32. Rienties, B., Beausaert, S., Grohnert, T., Niemantsverdriet, S., & Kommers, P. (2012). Understanding academic performance of international students: The role of ethnicity, academic and social integration. Higher Education, 63(6), 685-700. [DOI:10.1007/s10734-011-9468-1] [DOI:10.1007/s10734-011-9468-1]
33. Sasaki, M., & Yamasaki, K. (2007). Stress coping and the adjustment process among university freshmen. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 20(1), 51-67. [DOI:10.1080/09515070701219943] [DOI:10.1080/09515070701219943]
34. Schnider, K. R., Elhai, J. D., & Gray, M. J. (2007). Coping style use predicts posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptom severity among college students reporting a traumatic loss. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 344-50. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.344] [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.344]
35. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80-93. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.53.1.80] [DOI:10.1037/0022-0167.53.1.80]
36. Zea, M. C., Jarama, S. L., & Bianchi, F. T. (1995). Social support and psychosocial competence: Explaining the adaptation to college of ethnically diverse students. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(4), 509-31. [DOI:10.1007/BF02506966] [DOI:10.1007/BF02506966]