Introduction: Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can influence the biological system by the formation of free radicals in cells. The EMFs are able to deteriorate defense system against free radicals that leads to oxidative stress (OS). Lipid peroxidation process (LPO) is an index of oxidative stress, and the Malandialdehyde (MDA) is the final product of LPO. Vitamin E is the most important antioxidant which inhibits the LPO process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3MT EMF exposure on oxidative stress parameters in substantia nigra and the role of vitamin E in reducing oxidative stress and preventing of LPO process.
Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group: received standard food without exposure to EMF and without consumption of vitamin E, 2) Experimental group 1: was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 3) The experimental group 2: received 200 mg/kg vitamin E with gavage every day and also was exposed to EMF (3MT) 4 h/day for 50 days, 4) Sham group: received water with gavage for 50 days.
Results: A significant increase in MDA levels and Glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of the substantia nigra following 50 days exposure to EMF was detected, but the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased. Exposure did not change total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in plasma. Vitamin E treatment significantly prevented the increase of the MDA levels and GSH-Px activity and also prevented the decrease of SOD activity in tissue but did not alter TAC levels. The GSH-Px activity increased because the duration and intensity of exposure were not enough to decrease it.
Conclusion: We demonstrated two important findings; that 50 days exposure to 3 MT electromagnetic field caused oxidative stress by increasing the levels of MDA, and decreasing SOD activity in the substantia nigra; and that treatment with the vitamin E significantly prevented the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.